Michael F. Verde

                        School of Psychology, University of Plymouth


   Education                                                                          Contact
   BA University of Michigan                                                   Office:   A201 Portland Square
   PhD University of Illinois                                                      Phone:   +44 (0)1752 584 861
   Postdoctoral fellow, University of Massachusetts                 michael.verde@plymouth.ac.uk             

   Research Interests                                                               
   Decision Theory                                                                   School of Psychology
   Quantitative Models                                                             University of Plymouth
   Metacognition                                                                      Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA
   False Memory                                                                      United Kingdom          


Current Research

My current research ranges from basic theoretical questions (what are the mechanisms of encoding, retrieval, and forgetting?) to issues of application and function (how do people use what they retrieve? how does memory function under real-world conditions?).  I'm always happy to talk with students interested in getting involved as research assistants or with dissertation projects and Msc/PhD studentships.

One memory or many?  Memory seems to take different forms: familiarity without a sense of time or place; recollection of specific details; memory for single items or events; memory for association or context; knowledge of skill and procedure.  Do qualitatively different processes govern these different forms of memory?  Converging evidence from a variety of domains suggest that there is a "toolbox" of memory processes that people use in different ways according to the demands of the situation.  The goal is to develop quantitative models of these processes that may bring us closer to a unified understanding of how memory works across different retrieval tasks (item recognition, associative recognition, recall, etc.).

Retrieval-induced forgetting. Remembering some things makes us forget other things. The function of this phenomenon and the mechanisms responsible for it remain open to debate. My particular interest is in resolving the apparent conflict between classical interference theories and more recent theories of retrieval inhibition.

Metacognition and decision-making.  People have theories about how their memory works. They have rules, some conscious and some unconscious, that dictate how information retrieved from memory is translated into judgments and choices. These decision-making processes can be quite sophisticated, and understanding them may enable us to train people to use their memory more accurately. On the other hand, some rules ("heuristics") are simplistic and often lead to memory illusions and false memories. I am particulalry interested in developing quantitative models of the decision-making process within the framework of signal detection theory.

Emotion and memory. Recent work has examined 1) the way that mood and emotional stimuli can facilitate false memories; 2) the role of mood in shaping cognitive processing styles, which can have both positive and negative influences on memory; 3) the effects of physiological arousal on encoding, retrieval, and long-term consolidation.

Distinctiveness.  What is distinctiveness, and what makes distinctive things more memorable? Our answers to this question remain surprisingly vague and disjointed. I am interested in several aspects of distinctiveness. One has to do with the effect of distinctiveness on memory decision-making (e.g., confidence, the distinctiveness heuristic). We often base judgments not on how objectively memorable a thing is, but on how memorable we think it is. Another aspect is the effect of distinctiveness on contextual binding. Are we better able to remember items encountered in a distinctive context? Are we better able to form associations between distinctive things?

Publications (Peer-reviewed Journals & Book Chapters)

Stagg, B. C., & Verde, M. F. (2018). A comparison of descriptive writing and drawing of plants for the development of adult novices’ botanical knowledge. Journal of Biological Education, . (pdf)

Trippas, D., Handley, S. J. , & Verde, M. F. (2016). Logic brightens my day: Evidence for implicit sensitivity to logical validity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 42, 1448-1457. (pdf)

Trippas, D., Pennycook, G., Verde, M. F., & Handley, S. J. (2015). Better but still biased: The link between analytic cognitive style and belief bias. Thinking and Reasoning, 21, 431-445. (pdf)

Trippas, D., Handley, S. J., & Verde, M. F. (2014). Alleviating the concerns with the SDT approach to reasoning: Reply to Singmann and Kellen. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, article 184. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00184. (pdf)

Trippas, D., Verde, M. F., Handley, S. J., Roser, M. E., McNair, N. A., & Evans, J. St. B. T. (2014). Modeling causal conditional reasoning data using SDT: caveats and new insights. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, article 217. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00217. (pdf)

Trippas, D., Verde, M. F., & Handley, S. J. (2014). Using forced choice to test belief bias in syllogistic reasoning. Cognition, 133, 586-600. (pdf)

Trippas, D., Handley, S. J., & Verde, M. F., (2014). Fluency and belief bias in deductive reasoning: New indices for old effects. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, article 631. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00631. (pdf)

Trippas, D., Handley, S. J., & Verde, M. F. (2013). The SDT model of belief bias: Complexity, time and cognitive ability mediate the effects of believability. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 39, 1393-1402. (pdf)

Verde, M. F. (2013). Retrieval-induced forgetting in recall: Competitor interference revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 39, 1433-1448. (pdf)

Verde, M. F. (2012). Retrieval-induced forgetting and inhibition: A critical review. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation,Vol. 56,. p. 47-80. New York: Academic Press. (pdf)

Verde, M. F., & Perfect, T. J. (2011). Retrieval-induced forgetting in recognition is absent under time pressure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1166–1171. (pdf)

Verde, M. F. (2010). Conjunction errors in recognition: Emergent structure and metacognitive control. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 476-488. (pdf)

Verde, M. F., Stone, L. K., Hatch, H. S., & Schnall, S. (2010). Distinguishing between mnemonic and attributional sources of familiarity: Positive emotion bias as a case study. Memory & Cognition, 38, 142-153. (pdf)

Verde, M. F. (2009). The list-strength effect in recall: Relative-strength competition and retrieval inhibition may both contribute to forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 35, 205-220. (pdf)

Rotello, C. M., Masson, M. E. J., & Verde, M. F. (2008). Type I error rates and power analysis for single-point sensitivity measures. Perception & Psychophysics, 70, 389-401. (pdf)

Verde, M. F., & Rotello, C. M. (2007).  Memory strength and the decision process in recognition memory.  Memory & Cognition, 35, 254-262. (pdf)

Verde, M. F., Macmillan, N. A., & Rotello, C. M. (2006). Measures of sensitivity based on a single hit rate and false-alarm rate: The accuracy, precision, and robustness of d′, Az, and A′. Perception & Psychophysics, 68, 643-654. (pdf)

Macmillan, N. A., Rotello, C. M., & Verde, M. F. (2005). On the importance of models in interpreting remember-know experiments: Comments on Gardiner et al.'s (2002) meta-analysis. Memory, 13, 607-621. (pdf)

Verde, M. F., Murphy, G. L., & Ross, B. H. (2005). Influence of multiple categories on the prediction of unknown properties.  Memory & Cognition, 33, 479-487. (pdf)

Verde, M. F. (2004).  Associative interference in recognition memory: A dual-process account.  Memory & Cognition, 32, 1273-1283. (pdf)

Verde, M. F. (2004). The retrieval practice effect in associative recognition.  Memory & Cognition, 32, 1265-1272. (pdf)

Verde, M. F., & Rotello, C. M. (2004). Strong memories obscure weak memories in associative recognition.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 1062-1066. (pdf)

Verde, M. F., & Rotello, C. M. (2004). ROC curves show that the revelation effect is not a single phenomenon.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 560-566. (pdf)

Verde, M. F., & Rotello, C. M. (2003). Does familiarity change in the revelation effect?  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 29, 739-746. (pdf)